PRIALT® (ziconotide) solution, intrathecal infusion is indicated for the management of severe chronic pain in adult patients for whom intrathecal (IT) therapy is warranted, and who are intolerant of or refractory to other treatment, such as systemic analgesics, adjunctive therapies, or IT morphine.
Important Safety Information
WARNING: NEUROPSYCHIATRIC ADVERSE REACTIONS
PRIALT is contraindicated in patients with a preexisting history of psychosis. Severe psychiatric symptoms and neurological impairment may occur during treatment with PRIALT. Monitor all patients frequently for evidence of cognitive impairment, hallucinations, or changes in mood or consciousness. Discontinue PRIALT therapy in the event of serious neurological or psychiatric signs or symptoms.
PRIALT is contraindicated in patients with:
- A known hypersensitivity to ziconotide or any of its formulation components.
- Any other concomitant treatment or medical condition that would render intrathecal administration hazardous, such as the presence of infection at the microinfusion injection site, uncontrolled bleeding diathesis, and spinal canal obstruction that impairs circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
- A pre-existing history of psychosis.
Warnings and Precaution
Cognitive and Neuropsychiatric Adverse Reactions
Severe psychiatric symptoms and neurological impairment may occur during treatment. Monitor all patients frequently for evidence of cognitive impairment, hallucinations, or changes in mood or consciousness. PRIALT may cause or worsen depression, with the risk of suicide in susceptible patients.
In clinical trials, 12% of patients reported hallucinations; other acute psychiatric events included paranoid reactions (3%), hostility (2%), delirium (2%), psychosis (1%), and manic reactions (0.4%).
Patients with pretreatment psychiatric disorders may be at an increased risk. Management of psychiatric complications may need to include discontinuation of PRIALT, treatment with psychotherapeutic agents and/or short-term hospitalization.
In clinical trials, cognitive adverse reactions included confusion (33%), memory impairment (22%), speech disorder (14%), aphasia (12%), thinking abnormal (8%), and amnesia (1%). Cognitive impairment may appear gradually after several weeks of treatment. Reduce the dose of PRIALT or discontinue the use of PRIALT if signs or symptoms of cognitive impairment develop, but other contributing causes must also be considered. The cognitive effects of PRIALT are generally reversible within 2 weeks after drug discontinuation. The elderly (≥65 years) are at higher risk for confusion. Concomitant use of central nervous system (CNS) depressants with PRIALT may have additive effects.
Meningitis and Other Infections
Meningitis can occur due to inadvertent contamination of the microinfusion device and other means. In clinical trials, the rate of meningitis was 3% (40 cases) in the PRIALT group using either internal or external microinfusion devices and 1% (1 case) with placebo. In patients with external microinfusion devices and catheters, meningitis occurred in 38 out of 41 patients (93%), 37 of whom received PRIALT and one who received placebo. Patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers must be particularly vigilant for the signs and symptoms of meningitis including, but not limited to, fever, headache, stiff neck, altered mental status (e.g., lethargy, confusion, disorientation), nausea or vomiting, and occasionally seizures.
Strict aseptic procedures must be used during the preparation of the PRIALT solution and refilling of the microinfusion device.
Reduced Level of Consciousness
In clinical trials, 2% of PRIALT-treated patients became unresponsive or stuporous. If reduced levels of consciousness occur, discontinue PRIALT until the event resolves, and other etiologies (e.g., meningitis) must be considered.
Elevation of Serum Creatine Kinase
In clinical trials, serum creatine kinase (CK) levels above the upper limit of normal (ULN) were reported in 40% of patients, with 11% of patients having CK levels >3 times ULN. Incidences were higher during the first 2 months of treatment. Serum CK should be monitored periodically. In the setting of new neuromuscular symptoms, evaluate patients, obtain CK measurements, and if symptoms continue and CK levels remain elevated or continue to rise, reduce the dose or discontinue the use of PRIALT.
Withdrawal From Opiates
PRIALT is not an opiate and cannot prevent or relieve the symptoms associated with the withdrawal of opiates. To avoid withdrawal syndrome when opiate withdrawal is necessary, do not abruptly reduce or withdraw opioid medications.
Driving and Operating Machinery
Use of PRIALT has been associated with cognitive impairment and decreased alertness/unresponsiveness. Caution patients against engaging in hazardous activities that require complete mental alertness or motor coordination.
Most Common Adverse Reactions
The most frequently reported adverse reactions (≥25%) in clinical trials (n=1254 PRIALT-treated patients) were dizziness, nausea, confusional state, and nystagmus. Slower titration of PRIALT may result in fewer serious adverse reactions and discontinuations for adverse reactions.
Additional Important Information
PRIALT is not intended for intravenous (IV) administration. PRIALT is for use only in the Medtronic SynchroMed® II Infusion System and the CADD-Micro Ambulatory Infusion Pump
Please see full Prescribing Information, including BOXED Warning.